What is Bone Marrow Transplant?
- Bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure that replaces healthy blood-forming cells for damaged or diseased stem cells. Healthy stem cells are isolated from a donor or patient using a catheter, filtered, and then transfused into the patient.
- Stem cells can be obtained from bone marrow, the umbilical cord, or peripheral blood cells (circulating blood stem cells).
What are the diseases for which it can be effective?
- Malignant disorders
- Leukemia (Blood or Bone marrow cancer)
- Lymphomas (Cancer of the lymphatic system)
- Multiple Myeloma (Cancer of plasma cells)
- Benign disorders
- Bone marrow failure-Aplastic Anemia (A condition in which the producing enough new blood cells)
- Storage disorders
- Multiple Myeloma (Cancer of plasma cells)
- Thalassemia, Sickle cell anemia
Types of Stem Cells Transplant:
- Autologous: Stem cells are extracted from the patient’s own peripheral blood after mobilisation, in this type of transplant.
- Allogenic: Someone who is the same type (HLA Matched) as the patient. It could be a sibling, parent, or a genetic match(Matched unrelated donor(MUD).
- Umbilical Cord Transplant: Stem cells from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord are used.
- The matching procedure requires typing the Human Leukocyte Antigen tissue (HLA). There are HLA antigens in the human body, and the greater the number of matching antigens, the greater the chance of a successful transplant.
- The ideal donor is the patient’s sibling. Siblings have a one in four chance of matching for bone
At MGM Cancer Institute, we use state-of-the-art technology, with the expertise of top doctors and healthcare professionals to perform autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplants. Our experienced team of hematologists, oncologists, and transplant experts use a comprehensive and individualized approach to ensure successful outcomes.
After donation, bone marrow replaces itself within four to six weeks.
Side effects of Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplant can cause a variety of side effects such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. Our team closely monitors patients to manage these symptoms and ensure a smooth recovery process.
A Positive note for preparation
Bone marrow transplant is a complex medical procedure that requires thorough preparation. Our team provides patients with pre-transplant counseling and support to ensure they are well-informed and ready for the procedure.
Steps involved in a bone marrow transplant
Preparation : Before the transplant, the patient undergoes chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy the existing bone marrow and make room for the new cells.
Collection : The healthy stem cells are collected from either the patient’s own body (autologous transplant) or a donor (allogeneic transplant) using a procedure called apheresis. In some cases, the stem cells may be taken from the bone marrow directly.
Transplantation : The new stem cells are infused into the patient’s bloodstream through an IV. The cells travel to the bone marrow, where they begin to grow and produce new blood cells.
Recovery : After the transplant, you will be closely monitored for complications and side effects, such as infections, bleeding, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
Emotional and Mental needs
We understand that a bone marrow transplant can be emotionally and mentally challenging. Our team provides compassionate care and support to help patients and their families navigate this journey.
What Can I do to help myself
After bone marrow transplant, patients need to take extra precautions to prevent infections and ensure a successful recovery.
Follow your healthcare team’s instructions closely, including any medication schedules and dietary guidelines.
Practice good hygiene, including frequent hand washing and avoiding contact with sick individuals.
Avoid crowds and public places to reduce the risk of infection.
Rest and get plenty of sleep to allow your body to recover.
Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet to provide your body with the nutrients it needs to heal.
Don’t hesitate to ask for help from family, friends, or support groups.
Attend all follow-up appointments with your healthcare team to monitor your progress and address any concerns.
After Treatment | After Care
After bone marrow transplant, patients require long-term follow-up care and monitoring to ensure their continued well-being. Our team provides comprehensive aftercare services and support to help patients live healthy and fulfilling lives.
The patient will need to take medications to prevent GVHD (Graft Vs. Host Disease) and other complications, and will require regular follow-up visits with their healthcare team to monitor their progress and address any issues that arise
Get a Screening/Second Opinion from us
If you or a loved one is considering a bone marrow transplant, we encourage you to reach out to our team for consultation and expert advice. Our team of experts will provide personalized recommendations and support every step of the way.
Bone marrow procedure and care plan
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure that involves replacing damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.
Bone marrow transplants are usually recommended for people with certain types of cancers or blood disorders, such as leukemia, lymphoma, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and multiple myeloma etc.,
There are different types of bone marrow transplants, but in general, the procedure involves first destroying the diseased bone marrow with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Then, healthy bone marrow stem cells are infused into the body intravenously.
The risks of a bone marrow transplant include infection, bleeding, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), organ damage, and relapse of the original disease.
Recovery from a bone marrow transplant can take several months to a year or more. During this time, patients need to be closely monitored and may need to take medications to prevent complications.
The success of a bone marrow transplant depends on several factors, including the type of disease being treated, the patient’s age and overall health, and the availability of a suitable donor. In general, bone marrow transplants have a success rate of around 70%.
Auto transplants typically take 14 days, while allotransplants take 21 days. It is best to stay close to the hospital after discharge because, during the first two months following discharge, a weekly visit to the hospital is advised. After then, depending on the clinical scenario, you might need to come in once a month or once every two weeks
To prevent infections, anti-microbials will be given to you at the time of discharge. Consume only cooked meals; stay away from salads, dairy, and fruits that are raw. Do not eat any leftover pre-packaged juices or snacks; only consume items that have just been freshly opened.
You will receive another vaccination after 6 months to strengthen your immunity. By the 6th month, you’ll receive a schedule of your vaccinations.
With auto-transplants, the majority of oral medications are stopped after six months, but for allo-transplants, depending on your GVHD assessment, you could need to continue taking medications for over a year or even longer.
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